How to Create a Magic System


Magic systems are an integral part of many fantasy worlds, and they can make or break a story. A good magic system is one that is both unique and consistent, adding depth, interest, and genuine meaning to the world. Some of the most popular authors in the fantasy genre, such as Brandon Sanderson, Jack Vance, Steven Erikson, and Tolkien, have created some of the most memorable magic systems in literature. In this article, we will explore the elements that make a great magic system and how to create one that is both unique and captivating.


Element #1: The Source of Magic

The source of magic in a fantasy world is crucial to its believability and consistency. Some magic systems are based on natural elements, such as the four elements of earth, air, fire, and water. Other systems may have a divine or spiritual source, where magic is channeled through prayer or devotion. Still, others may have a scientific basis, where magic is a product of a particular substance or energy source.

In creating a unique magic system, it is essential to consider the source of magic and ensure that it is consistent with the world's overall tone and themes. For example, in a world where the gods are central, magic may come from a divine source, while in a world where science and technology rule, magic may have a more scientific basis.

You could have magic stemming from celestial bodies and cosmic forces, be that via deities or Lovecraftian elder gods. Perhaps the alignment of planets, the power of godlike beings, or the influence of constellations could determine the potency and nature of magic. This concept opens up fascinating avenues for astrological magic and the use of celestial phenomena. Games like Elden Ring and Bloodborne use these quite effectively.

Another concept to consider is the concept of ley lines and magical nexuses. These energy pathways could crisscross the fantasy world, connecting significant locations and imbuing them with magical properties. Magic users might tap into these ley lines to amplify their abilities or draw power from specific nodes of concentrated energy. This concept is used quite often in fantasy, from The Witcher to The Dresden Files to The Dark Tower, so you’ll want to shake it up a bit and make it unique.

Magical bloodlines and heritage can serve as a compelling source of magic in a fantasy world. Certain individuals or families might possess inherent magical abilities passed down through generations, giving rise to esteemed magical lineages. These bloodlines could be linked to mythical creatures, ancient beings, or even a mysterious event that infused their ancestors with extraordinary powers. One warning regarding bloodlines is the danger of including what is essentially racism, with “pure magic bloodlines” and such leaving a bad taste in the mouth. Be aware of the potential effects of your writing.

The natural world itself can be a wellspring of magic. Enchanted forests, sacred groves, or mystical caves might harbor ancient spirits or magical creatures whose presence infuses the surroundings with magical energy. The flora and fauna within these magical realms could possess extraordinary properties, serving as catalysts for spellcasting or sources of magical ingredients. Again, quite common, but you can always turn it into something new and fresh.

The concept of magic as an expression of emotions and the human psyche can add depth to a fantasy world. This was the entire basis of my magic system in my Aria of Steel trilogy. Magic can be deeply intertwined with the raw emotions and inner states of individuals. Powerful sorcery may be born from intense feelings such as love, anger, grief, or fear, emphasizing the importance of emotional resonance in wielding magic.

The idea of interdimensional connections could introduce an unconventional source of magic. Portals or gateways to other realms might exist within the fantasy world, allowing magical energy to seep through from parallel dimensions. Stories like Narnia, Peter Pan, The Neverending Story, and the thousands of isekai manga and anime out there prove the popularity of these stories. Magic users might harness this interdimensional magic, accessing incredible abilities and tapping into the vast knowledge of otherworldly entities.

When designing a magic system, combining and expanding upon these varied sources can result in a rich and intricate tapestry of magical origins. By crafting a diverse and consistent source of magic, fantasy worlds can transport readers to realms where the possibilities are truly enchanting. Be careful not to include too many different sources of magic to avoid complicating matters and creating deus ex machina moments.

Element #2: The Rules and Costs of Magic

One of the essential elements of a great magic system is its rules. A well-defined set of rules ensures that magic is not a deus ex machina that can solve any problem or create plot holes. The rules should be consistent throughout the story, and their limitations should be clear.

Brandon Sanderson is famous for his magic systems, which are based on clearly defined rules. In his Mistborn series, for example, magic is based on metals, each of which has a specific effect. By limiting the number of metals available and their effects, Sanderson creates a system that is easy to understand and allows for creative problem-solving within the rules.

When establishing the rules of magic, it is crucial to strike a balance between providing structure and allowing room for creativity. A system that is too rigid may stifle the imagination of both the writer and the reader, while one that is too loose can lead to inconsistencies and diminish the tension within the story. The rules should be well-defined but leave space for unexpected applications and discoveries. This balance allows for engaging storytelling while maintaining a sense of wonder and discovery throughout the narrative.

Another aspect to consider when designing magic rules is the notion of consequence and limitation. Magic should not be without cost or risk. By imposing limitations, such as a finite amount of energy or a limited range of spells, the magic system gains depth and realism. Additionally, consequences for the misuse or abuse of magic can add tension and moral dilemmas to the story. The rules should emphasize the responsibility and accountability that come with wielding such extraordinary powers, thereby adding layers of complexity to the characters and their choices.

Another critical element of a great magic system is the cost of using it. Magic should never come without a price, or it risks becoming too powerful and unbalancing the story. The cost can be physical, emotional, or even spiritual, and it should be proportional to the power of the magic.

For example, in J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter series, magic comes at the cost of a wizard's physical and emotional energy. Overuse of magic can lead to exhaustion and even death, adding a real sense of danger to the use of magic. In my Aria of Steel trilogy, overuse of empath powers can lead to heightened and uncontrollable emotions in the user.

Think about a unique cost that your magic-users can face. This ties directly into the next point.

Element #3: The Limitations of Magic

The limitations of magic are another crucial element of a great magic system. Magic should not be able to solve every problem or create an easy way out of difficult situations. There should always be limitations that prevent magic from becoming a catch-all solution.

In The Lord of the Rings by J.R.R. Tolkien, magic is limited by the power of the wizard using it. Gandalf, for example, cannot defeat the Balrog with his magic alone but must also use his physical strength and wit.

In The Wheel of Time series, magic, known as the One Power, is divided into two halves: saidin (male) and saidar (female). However, male characters face a significant limitation in that saidin is tainted by the Dark One, driving male channelers mad with every use. This taint makes the male characters constantly struggle to control and balance their use of magic, knowing that each time they channel, they are exposed to a corrupting force. This limitation adds a sense of danger and vulnerability to male magic users, highlighting the consequences of their power.

The magic system in The Kingkiller Chronicles by Patrick Rothfuss, known as Sympathy, has a clear limitation known as the Law of Conservation. According to this law, energy cannot be created or destroyed but can only be transferred or transformed. Sympathy requires the magic user to establish a physical link, called a sympathetic link, between two objects or substances to transfer energy between them. However, the energy transfer must adhere to the principles of conservation, meaning that the magic user must balance and account for the energy used and gained in their actions. This limitation forces characters to carefully consider the consequences of their magic and plan their actions accordingly.


Creating a unique magic system requires careful consideration of the source of magic, the rules, the cost, and the limitations. Consider all the systems that you have read about before, and then try to make yours more unique and individual. Write down a few ideas, then a few more. Cross-out the ones you have seen done before and rewrite them with a twist, some unique idea. Insert them into your world not as a passing thought but with consideration about how they help the story and how their limitations can add drama.

By following these ideas and the examples set by some of the most influential authors in the fantasy genre, you will create a magic system that is both consistent, new, and engaging. With a well-defined magic system, you can immerse readers in a rich and vibrant world that will keep them coming back for more.

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